Is graphene supposed to have high thermal conductivity of 5300 W/mK, but why does many commercial graphene thermal dissipation inks claim that the thermal conductivity is 5 W/mK or even lower?

The thermal conductivity of 5300 W/mK is the theoretical value for single-layer and free standing graphene sheet. Once the graphene is attached on other substance, the energy/heat transportation amongst graphene would be dampened.
Additionally, the commercial graphene thermal dissipation inks comprise more than graphene powder. Resin, used as matrix and adhesive, is a low thermal conductivity material. Therefore, the overall efficiency would NOT reach the ideal thermal conductivity of 5300 W/mK.

How does Enerage measure the concentration of graphene organic suspension?

The concentration is calculated by the weight fraction of graphene powder among all the materials of the suspension. The concentration will be confirmed by the moisture analyzer after the suspension is made.

What kind of solvents are used to make graphene suspension?

The solvent used in graphene suspension includes N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP), ethylene glycol, isopropyl alcohol (IPA), ethyl acetate, butyl acetate, methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), Dimethylacetamide (DMAc or DMA), Poly propylene glycol (PPG), silane, siloxane, rubber process oil and water. Customized suspension is also available.

What temperature should be reached to remove the solvent in N-Methyl-2-Pyrrolidone (NMP) based graphene suspension?

The boiling temperature of N-Methyl-2-Pyrrolidone (NMP) is 203℃. The appropriate heating temperature accords to the substrate that the suspension covers on and the materials that the graphene suspension is mixed with. Based on our experience, most NMP is able to be removed by soft-baking at 100℃ for 30 minutes for spin coated film.

Among multi-layer and few-layer graphene products of Enerage, which one is easier to be proceeded mixing?

Specific surface area (SSA) is an important factor that affects the feasibility of mixing. Among our company’s products, powder with low SSA requires fewer solvent to wet the surface of graphene. Therefore, low SSA powder is easier to be proceeded mixing.